The Web provides three basic modes of navigation: search, browse, and surf. Few web sites, and still fewer doc sets do all three well.
The something extra? “Pick three and add something extra” comes from Peter Sheahan’s book Flip, in which he flips the traditional business motto “good, fast, cheap: pick two” into what he regards as the new price of admission for business: “good, fast, cheap: pick three and add something extra.”
With findability being the new price of admission of content, I’d suggest that search, browse, surf: pick three and add something extra is the new standard we have to meet.
Wikipedia is a good example of a site that seems to pay attention to all three modes of navigation. Their articles perform reliably in searches (that is, it is likely that the Wikipedia article that shows up in search results is actually relevant to the subject of your search). They are richly linked internally (thanks, I suppose, to thousands of people editing the topics and adding links to them). And while browsing is probably the least used navigation method in Wikipedia, it is still well supported, with their portal pages and the categories they provide for directed browsing.
A lot of tech pubs organizations focus heavily on browse, devoting much effort to manually constructing elaborate hierarchies of topics. However, their individual topics seldom work well as “page one” when you arrive via a search, and again, linking is usually sparse or nonexistent.
Search does get attention in tech pubs groups, but it tends to play second fiddle to browse. Perhaps because browse is something that pubs groups are more familiar with, or something they feel they have more control over. But it is the reverse of the importance that browse and search play for most readers today.
A focus on browse sequences and hierarchies can be detrimental to creating content that is easy to search, especially if we expand the definition of easy to search to mean not only that the content is easy to find, but that is is also useful once found. A search that drops you into the middle of a browse sequence in which topics depend on their place in the sequence means that the topic probably won’t answer the reader’s question the first time. Dropped into the middle of something large, readers will have to work to get their bearings before finding the information they actually came for. Focusing first on creating content that is easy to search (and that works well when found) and only afterwards constructing a browse sequence might produce better results.
Surf — following links directly from one page to another — is and always has been the most neglected navigation mechanism in tech pubs organizations. No doubt this is partly because it has traditionally been expensive to create and maintain links between topics. The neglect has been exacerbated by the difficulties of managing links in reusable content, which has resulted in some organizations actively removing links from their content. (I recently presented a paper on a method for making it easier to create and manage linking. I call it soft linking. More on that another day.)
But surf is an important part of the total navigation package. The ideal may be that a single topic should answer each user’s question and allow them to get back to work immediately. But in reality, some users will need ancillary information: to understand concepts that are not familiar to them, to find procedures for creating objects needed for the current task, to find reference material to supply needed data. If they can’t get to these things by following links in your text, then they must either go back to the search box, or navigate out to the browse sequence and try to find the information that way. Either way, you are forcing the reader back into search mode and delaying their quest to get back to work.
The something extra? There are quite a few interesting possibilities. Tom Johnson has recently been looking (unsuccessfully) for a help system that supports faceted search. Used car web sites allow you to narrow your search by selecting any combination of independent variables such as make, model, year, transmission, etc, but I have yet to see anything like this show up in documentation sets.
But for my money, the most important something extra is still to make sure that when the user finds content, by whatever method, the content they find works for them. In short, its about making sure that every page is an effective page one.